Neonatal Drug Therapy Manual

Fluconazole

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Alternate Name(s): 
Diflucan
Classification: 
Antifungal Agent
Original Date: 
August 2003
Revised Date: 
January 2019
Indications: 
  • Treatment of invasive candidal infections, esophageal candidiasis, UTI and pneumonia
  • Treatment of thrush
  • Prophylaxis for the prevention of invasive candidiasis
Administration: 
  • IV intermittent infusion: over 1 - 2 hours (for doses > 6 mg/kg, administer IV over 2 hours)
  • PO
Dosage: 
  • Initial therapy as single agent or second agent for documented candidiasis or clinically suspected invasive candidal infection
    • Loading Dose: 12 mg/kg/dose IV/PO on Day 1
    • Maintenance dose:
      • 0 - 14 days: 6 - 12 mg/kg/dose IV/PO Q48H
      • > 14 days: 6 - 12 mg/kg/dose IV/PO Q24H

*If used as sequential therapy (after Amphotericin B or other antifungal agents), loading dose may not be necessary

  • Thrush
    • 3 - 6 mg/kg/dose PO daily for 3 - 5 days
  • Prophylaxis for the prevention of invasive candidiasis

** Based upon the current available literature, our approach is not to start antifungal prophylaxis for all premature infants because of the concern of promoting resistant Candida species within the NICU.

** Prophylactic fluconazole may be considered in infants with a high risk of invasive fungal infections such as extremely low birth weight infants (birth weight below 1000 g) with additional risk factors such as prolonged treatment with systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  •  6 mg/kg/dose IV twice a week until intravenous access no longer is required for care

Dosage adjustment required in renal impairment.  Refer to available references or clinical pharmacist for dosage adjustment.  Dosage adjustment may also be required if liver enzymes become elevated.

Side Effects: 
  • CVS: QT interval prolongation reported
  • GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
  • Hematologic: eosinophilia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia (rare)
  • Hepatic: elevated AST, ALT, or ALP; hepatitis; cholestasis
Parameters to Monitor: 
  • Periodic liver function test
  • Renal function
Reconstitution and Stability: 
  • Fluconazole 2 mg/mL:
    • Available as Fluconazole 2 mg/mL solution: No reconstitution necessary
    • Final concentration: 2 mg/mL
Compatibility: 

- Solutions Compatible: D5W or 0.9 % NaCl

- Y-site Compatible: acyclovir, dopamine, dobutamine, fentanyl, gentamicin, heparin, midazolam, morphine, tobramycin, TPN (amino acids- dextrose), vancomycin

Incompatible: ampicillin, amphotericin B, calcium gluconate 100 mg/mL (undiluted), cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, clindamycin, erythromycin, furosemide, piperacillin, SMOF

References: 

-Taketomo CK, Hodding JH, Kraus DM. Pediatric & Neonatal Dosage Handbook 22nd Edition. Hudson: Lexi-Comp Inc.; 2015

-Trissel LA. Handbook on Injectable Drugs. 16th Editions. Bethesda: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2011

-King JC. King Guide to Parenteral Admixtures. Internet Edition.

- Piper et al.  Fluconazole Loading Dose Pharmacokinetics and Safety in Infants.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011; 30: 375-378

- American Academy of Pediatrics. In Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Kimberlin DW, Long SS, eds.  Red Book: 2012. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk. Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2012: 268-69

- Wade et al. Population Pharmacokinetics of Fluconazole in Young Infants. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2008; 52; 4043 - 49

- Wade et al.  Fluconazole Dosing for the Prevention of treatment of Invasive Candidiasis in Young Infants.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009; 28: 717-23

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